Developing a New “Service-Centric IT Value Chain”

imageAs IT professionals we have been overwhelmed with different standards for each component of architecture, service delivery, governance, security, and operations.  Not only does IT need to ensure technical training and certification, but it is also desired to pursue certifications in ITIL, TOGAF, COBIT, PMP, and a variety of other frameworks – at a high cost in both time and money.

Wouldn’t it be nice to have an IT framework or reference architecture which brings all the important components of each standard or recommendation into a single model which focuses on the most important aspect of each existing model?

The Open Group is well-known for publishing TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework), in addition to a variety of other standards and frameworks related to Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA), security, risk, and cloud computing.  In the past few years, recognizing the impact of broadband, cloud computing, SOAs, and need for a holistic enterprise architecture approach to business and IT, publishing many common-sense, but powerful recommendations such as:

  • TOGAF 9.1
  • Open FAIR (Risk Analysis and Assessment)
  • SOCCI (Service-Oriented Cloud Computing Infrastructure)
  • Cloud Computing
  • Open Enterprise Security Architecture
  • Document Interchange Reference Model (for interoperability)
  • and others.

The open Group’s latest project intended to streamline and focus IT systems development is called the “IT4IT” Reference Architecture.  While still in the development, or “snapshot” phase, IT4IT is surprisingly easy to read, understand, and most importantly logical.

“The IT Value Chain and IT4IT Reference Architecture represent the IT service lifecycle in a new and powerful way. They provide the missing link between industry standard best practice guides and the technology framework and tools that power the service management ecosystem. The IT Value Chain and IT4IT Reference Architecture are a new foundation on which to base your IT operating model. Together, they deliver a welcome blueprint for the CIO to accelerate IT’s transition to becoming a service broker to the business.” (Open Group’s IT4IT Reference Architecture, v 1.3)

The IT4IT Reference Architecture acknowledges changes in both technology and business resulting from the incredible impact Internet and automation have had on both enterprise and government use of information and data.  However the document also makes a compelling case that IT systems, theory, and operations have not kept up with either existing IT support technologies, nor the business visions and objectives IT is meant to serve.

IT4IT’s development team is a large, global collaborative effort including vendors, enterprise, telecommunications, academia, and consulting companies.  This helps drive a vendor or technology neutral framework, focusing more on running IT as a business, rather than conforming to a single vendor’s product or service.  Eventually, like all developing standards, IT4IT may force vendors and systems developers to provide a solid model and framework for developing business solutions, which will support greater interoperability and data sharing between both internal and external organizations.

The visions and objectives for IT4IT include two major components, which are the IT Value Chain and IT4IT Reference Architecture.  Within the IT4IT Core are sections providing guidance, including:

  • IT4IT Abstractions and Class Structures
  • The Strategy to Portfolio Value Stream
  • The Requirement to Deploy Value Stream
  • The Request to Fulfill Value Stream
  • The Detect to Correct Value Stream

Each of the above main sections have borrowed from, or further developed ideas and activities from within ITIL, COBIT, and  TOGAF, but have taken a giant leap including cloud computing, SOAs, and enterprise architecture into the product.

As the IT4IT Reference Architecture is completed, and supporting roadmaps developed, the IT4IT concept will no doubt find a large legion of supporters, as many, if not most, businesses and IT professionals find the certification and knowledge path for ITIL, COBIT, TOGAF, and other supporting frameworks either too expensive, or too time consuming (both in training and implementation).

Take a look at IT4IT at the Open Group’s website, and let us know what you think.  Too light?  Not needed?  A great idea or concept?  Let us know.

Nurturing the Marriage of Cloud Computing and SOAs

In 2009 we began consulting jobs with governments in developing countries with the primary objective to consolidate data centers across government ministries and agencies into centralized, high capacity and quality data centers.  At the time, nearly all individual ministry or agency data infrastructure was built into either small computers rooms or server closets with some added “brute force” air conditioning, no backup generators, no data back up, superficial security, and lots of other ailments.

CC-SOA The vision and strategy was that if we consolidated inefficient, end of life, and high risk IT infrastructure into a standardized and professionally managed facility, national information infrastructure would not only be more secure, but through standardization, volume purchasing agreements, some server virtualization, and development of broadband infrastructure most of the IT needs of government would be easily fulfilled.

Then of course cloud computing began to mature, and the underlying technologies of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) became feasible.  Now, not only were the governments able to decommission inefficient and high-risk IS environments, they would also be able to build virtual data centers  with levels of on-demand compute, storage, and network resources.  Basic data center replacement.

Even those remaining committed “server hugger” IT managers and fiercely independent governmental organizations cloud hardly argue the benefits of having access to disaster recovery storage capacity though the centralized data center.

As the years passed, and we entered 2014, not only did cloud computing mature as a business model, but senior management began to increase their awareness of various aspects of cloud computing, including the financial benefits, standardization of IT resources, the characteristics of cloud computing, and potential for Platform and Software as a Service (PaaS/SaaS) to improve both business agility and internal decision support systems.

At the same time, information and organizational architecture, governance, and service delivery frameworks such as TOGAF, COBIT, ITIL, and Risk Analysis training reinforced the value of both data and information within an organization, and the need for IT systems to support higher level architectures supporting decision support systems and market interactions (including Government to Government, Business, and Citizens for the public sector) .

2015 will bring cloud computing and architecture together at levels just becoming comprehensible to much of the business and IT world.  The open Group has a good first stab at building a standard for this marriage with their Service-Oriented Cloud Computing Infrastructure (SOCCI). According to the SOCCI standard,

“Infrastructure is a foundational element for enterprise architecture. Infrastructure has been  traditionally provisioned in a physical manner. With the evolution of virtualization technologies  and application of service-orientation to infrastructure, it can now be offered as a service.

Service-orientation principles originated in the business and application architecture arena. After  repeated, successful application of these principles to application architecture, IT has evolved to  extending these principles to the infrastructure.”

At first glance the SOCII standard appears to be a document which creates a mapping between enterprise architecture (TOGAF) and cloud computing.  At second glance the SOCCI standard really steps towards tightening the loose coupling of standard service-oriented architectures through use of cloud computing tools included with all service models (IaaS/PaaS/SaaS).

The result is an architectural vision which is easily capable of absorbing existing IT requirements, as well as incorporating emerging big data analytics models, interoperability, and enterprise architecture.

Since the early days of 2009 discussion topics with government and enterprise customers have shown a marked transition from simply justifying decommissioning of high risk data centers to how to manage data sharing, interoperability, or the potential for over standardization and other service delivery barriers which might inhibit innovation – or ability of business units to quickly respond to rapidly changing market opportunities.

2015 will be an exciting year for information and communications technologies.  For those of us in the consulting and training business, the new year is already shaping up to be the busiest we have seen.

Now that We Have Adopted IaaS…

Providing guidance or consulting to organizations on cloud computing topics can be really easy, or really tough.  In the past most of the initial engagement was dedicated to training and building awareness with your customer.  The next step was finding a high value, low risk application or service that could be moved to Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to solve an immediate problem, normally associated with disaster recovery or data backups.

Service Buss and DSS As the years have continued, dynamics changed.  On one hand, IT professionals and CIOs began to establish better knowledge of what virtualization, cloud computing, and outsourcing could do for their organization.  CFOs became aware of the financial potential of virtualization and cloud computing, and a healthy dialog between IT, operations, business units, and the CFO.

The “Internet Age” has also driven global competition down to the local level, forcing nearly all organizations to respond more rapidly to business opportunities.  If a business unit cannot rapidly respond to the opportunity, which may require product and service development, the opportunity can be lost far more quickly than in the past.

In the old days, procurement of IT resources could require a fairly lengthy cycle.  In the Internet Age, if an IT procurement cycle takes > 6 months, there is probably little chance to effectively meet the greatly shortened development cycle competitors in other continents – or across the street may be able to fulfill.

With IaaS the procurement cycle of IT resources can be within minutes, allowing business units to spend far more time developing products, services, and solutions, rather than dealing with the frustration of being powerless to respond to short window opportunities.  This is of course addressing the essential cloud characteristics of Rapid Elasticity and On-Demand Self-Service.

In addition to on-demand and elastic resources, IaaS has offered nearly all organizations the option of moving IT resources into either public or private cloud infrastructure.  This has the benefit of allowing data center decommissioning, and re-commissioning into a virtual environment.  The cost of operating data centers, maintaining data centers and IT equipment, and staffing data centers vs. outsourcing that infrastructure into a cloud is very interesting to CFOs, and a major justification for replacing physical data centers with virtual data centers.

The second dynamic, in addition to greater professional knowledge and awareness of cloud computing, is the fact we are starting to recruit cloud-aware employees graduating from universities and making their first steps into careers and workforce.  With these “cloud savvy” young people comes deep experience with interoperable data, social media, big data, data analytics, and an intellectual separation between access devices and underlying IT infrastructure.

The Next Step in Cloud Evolution

OK, so we all are generally aware of the components of IaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS).  Let’s have a quick review of some standout features supported or enabled by cloud:

  • Increased standardization of applications
  • Increased standardization of data bases
  • Federation of security systems (Authentication and Authorization)
  • Service busses
  • Development of other common applications (GIS, collaboration, etc.)
  • Transparency of underlying hardware

Now let’s consider the need for better, real-time, accurate decision support systems (DSS).  Within any organization the value of a DSS is dependent on data integrity, data access (open data within/without an organization), and single-source data.

Frameworks for developing an effective DSS are certainly available, whether it is TOGAF, the US Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF), interoperability frameworks, and service-oriented architectures (SOA).  All are fully compatible with the tools made available within the basic cloud service delivery models (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS).

The Open Group (same organization which developed TOGAF) has responded with their model of a Cloud Computing Service Oriented Infrastructure (SOCCI) Framework.  The SOCCI is identified as the marriage of a Service-Oriented Infrastructure and cloud computing.  The SOCCI also incorporates aspects of TOGAF into the framework, which may drive more credibility into a SOCCI architectural development process.

The expected result of this effort is for existing organizations dealing with departmental “silos” of IT infrastructure, data, and applications, a level of interoperability and DSS development based on service-orientation, using a well-designed underlying cloud infrastructure.  This data sharing can be extended beyond the (virtual) firewall to others in an organization’s trading or governmental community, resulting in  DSS which will become closer and closer to an architecture vision based on the true value of data produced, or made available to an organization.

While we most certainly need IaaS, and the value of moving to virtual data centers is justified by itself, we will not truly benefit from the potential of cloud computing until we understand the potential of data produced and available to decision makers.

The opportunity will need a broad spectrum of contributors and participants with awareness and training in disciplines ranging from technical capabilities, to enterprise architecture, to service delivery, and governance acceptable to a cloud-enabled IT world.

For those who are eagerly consuming training and knowledge in the above skills and knowledge, the future is anything but cloudy.  For those who believe in status quo, let’s hope you are close to pension and retirement, as this is your future.

What Value Can I Expect from Cloud Computing Training?

Cloud Computing ClassroomNormally, when we think of technical-related training, images of rooms loaded with switches, routers, and servers might come to mind.    Cloud computing is different.  In reality, cloud computing is not a technology, but rather a framework employing a variety of technologies – most notably virtualization, to solve business problems or enable opportunities.

From our own practice, the majority of cloud training students represent non-technical careers and positions. Our training does follow the CompTIA Cloud Essentials course criterion, and is not a technical course, so the non-technical student trend should not come as any big surprise. 

What does come as a surprise is how enthusiastically our students dig into the topic.  Whether business unit managers, accounting and finance, sales staff, or executives, all students come into class convinced they need to know about cloud computing as an essential part of their future career progression, or even at times to ensure their career survival.

Our local training methodology is based on establishing an indepth knowledge of the NIST Cloud Definitions and Cloud Reference Architecture.  Once the students get beyond a perception such documents are too complex, and that we will refer nearly all aspects of training to both documents, we easily establish a core cloud computing knowledge base needed to explore both technical aspects, and more importantly practical aspects of how cloud computing is used in our daily lives, and likely future lives.

This is not significantly different than when we trained business users on how to use, employ, and exploit  the Internet in the 90s.  Those of us in engineering or technical operations roles viewed this type of training with either amusement or contempt, at times mocking those who did not share our knowledge and experience of internetworking, and ability to navigate the Internet universe.

We are in the same phase of absorbing and developing tacit knowledge of compute and storage access on demand, service-oriented architectures, Software as a Service, the move to a subscription-based application world.

Hamster Food as a Service (HFaaS)Those students who attend cloud computing training leave the class better able to engage in decision-making related to both personal and organizational information and communication technology, and less exposed to the spectrum of cloud washing, or marketing use of “cloud” and “XXX as a Service”  language overwhelming nearly all media on subjects ranging from hamster food to SpaceX and hyper loops.

Even the hardest core engineers who have degraded themselves to join a non-technical business-oriented cloud course walk away with a better view on how their tools support organizational agility (good jargon, no?), in addition to the potential financial impacts, reduced application development cycles, disaster recovery, business continuity, and all the other potential benefits to the organization when adopting cloud computing.

Some even walk away from the course planning a breakup with some of their favorite physical servers.

The Bottom Line

No student has walked away from a cloud computing course knowing less about the role, impact, and potential of implementing cloud in nearly any organization.  While the first few hours of class embrace a lot of great debates on the value of cloud computing, by the end of the course most students agree they are better prepared to consider, envision, evaluate, and address the potential or shortfalls of cloud computing.

Cloud computing is, and will continue to have influence on many aspects of our lives. It is not going away anytime soon.  The more we can learn, either through self-study or resident training, the better position we’ll be in to make intelligent decisions regarding the use and value of cloud in our lives and organizations.

Why IT Guys Need to Learn TOGAF

ByeBye-Telephones You are No Longer RequiredJust finished another frustrating day of consulting with an organization that is convinced technology is going to solve their problems.  Have an opportunity?  Throw money and computers at the opportunity.  Have a technology answer to your process problems?  Really?.

The business world is changing.  With cloud computing potentially eliminating the need for some current IT roles, such as physical server huggers…, information technology professionals, or more appropriately information and communications technology (ICT) professionals, need to rethink their roles within organizations.

Is it acceptable to simply be a technology specialist, or do ICT professionals also need to be an inherent part of the business process?  Yes, a rhetorical question, and any negative answer is wrong.  ICT professionals are rapidly being relieved of the burden of data centers, servers (physical servers), and a need to focus on ensuring local copies of MS Office are correctly installed, configured, and have the latest service packs or security patches installed.

You can fight the idea, argue the concept, but in reality cloud computing is here to stay, and will only become more important in both the business and financial planning of future organizations.

Now those copies of MS Office are hosted on MS 365 or Google Docs, and your business users are telling you either quickly meet their needs or they will simply bypass the IT organization and use an external or hosted Software as a Service (SaaS) application – in spite of your existing mature organization and policies.

So what is this TOGAF stuff?  Why do we care?

Well…

As it should be, ICT is firmly being set in the organization as a tool to meet business objectives.  We no longer have to consider the limitations or “needs” of IT when developing business strategies and opportunities.  SaaS and Platform as a Service (PaaS) tools are becoming mature, plentiful, and powerful.

Argue the point, fight the concept, but if an organization isn’t at least considering a requirement for data and systems interoperability, the use of large data sets, and implementation of a service-oriented architecture (SOA) they will not be competitive or effective in the next generation of business.

TOGAF, which is “The Open Group Architecture Framework,” brings structure to development of ICT as a tool for meeting business requirements.   TOGAF is a tool which will force each stakeholder, including senior management and business unit management, to work with ICT professionals to apply technology in a structured framework that follows the basic:

  • Develop a business vision
  • Determine your “AS-IS” environment
  • Determine your target environment
  • Perform a gap analysis
  • Develop solutions to meet the business requirements and vision, and fill the “gaps” between “AS-IS” and “Target”
  • Implement
  • Measure
  • Improve
  • Re-iterate
    Of course TOGAF is a complex architecture framework, with a lot more stuff involved than the above bullets.  However, the point is ICT must now participate in the business planning process – and really become part of the business, rather than a vendor to the business.
    As a life-long ICT professional, it is easy for me to fall into indulging in tech things.  I enjoy networking, enjoy new gadgets, and enjoy anything related to new technology.  But it was not until about 10 years ago when I started taking a formal, structured approach to understanding enterprise architecture and fully appreciating the value of service-oriented architectures that I felt as if my efforts were really contributing to the success of an organization.
    TOGAF was one course of study that really benefitted my understanding of the value and role IT plays in companies and government organizations.  TOGAF provide both a process, and structure to business planning.
    You may have a few committed DevOps evangelists who disagree with the structure of TOGAF, but in reality once the “guardrails” are in place even DevOps can be fit into the process.  TOGAF, and other frameworks are not intended to stifle innovation – just encourage that innovation to meet the goals of an organization, not the goals of the innovators.
    While just one of several candidate enterprise architecture frameworks (including the US Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework/FEAF, Dept. of Defense Architecture Framework /DoDAF), TOGAF is now universally accepted, and accompanying certifications are well understood within government and enterprise.

What’s an IT Guy to Do?

    Now we can send the “iterative” process back to the ICT guy’s viewpoint.  Much like telecom engineers who operated DMS 250s, 300s, and 500s, the existing IT and ICT professional corps will need to accept the reality they will either need to accept the concept of cloud computing, or hope they are close to retirement.  Who needs a DMS250 engineer in a world of soft switches?  Who needs a server manager in a world of Infrastructure as a Service?  Unless of course you work as an infrastructure technician at a cloud service provider…
    Ditto for those who specialize in maintaining copies of MS Office and a local MS Exchange server.  Sadly, your time is limited, and quickly running out.  Either become a cloud computing expert, in some field within cloud computing’s broad umbrella of components, or plan to be part of the business process.  To be effective as a member of the organization’s business team, you will need skills beyond IT – you will need to understand how ICT is used to meet business needs, and the impact of a rapidly evolving toolkit offered by all strata of the cloud stack.

Even better, become a leader in the business process.  If you can navigate your way through a TOGAF course and certification, you will acquire a much deeper appreciation for how ICT tools and resources could, and likely should, be planned and employed within an organization to contribute to the success of any individual project, or the re-engineering of ICTs within the entire organization.


John Savageau is TOGAF 9.1 Certified

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